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November 5, 2003
Library of Congress Announces Winner of First John W. Kluge Prize for Lifetime Achievement in the Humanities and Social Sciences
The Librarian of Congress, Dr. James H. Billington, announced today the award of the first John W. Kluge Prize for Lifetime Achievement in the Human Sciences to Leszek Kolakowski. Professor Kolakowski (pictured at right), who now resides in Oxford, England, was born in Radom, Poland, in 1927, is a philosopher focused on important questions, an historian of human thought, an essayist of enormous range, and an outstanding spokesman for, and exemplar of, European culture.
The Kluge Prize of one million dollars is given for lifetime achievement in the humanities and social sciences -- areas of scholarship for which there are no Nobel Prizes. These disciplines include philosophy, history, political science, anthropology, sociology, religion, linguistics and criticism in the arts and literature. Nominators for the prize were asked to recommend preeminent scholars in any of these or other closely related fields whose work was recognized as outstanding by their peers, they and also spoke to people in other fields and in public life.
Professor Kolakowski is the author of more than 30 books and 400 other writings in a wide variety of formats and in four languages: primarily in Polish, but also in French, English and German. His principal lines of inquiry have been in the history of philosophy and the philosophy of religion.
In announcing the award, Dr. Billington commented: "Very rarely can one identify a deep, reflective thinker who has had such a wide range of inquiry and demonstrable importance to major political events in his own time. Out of deep scholarship and relentless inquiry, Leszek Kolakowski made clear from within the Soviet system the intellectual bankruptcy of the Marxist ideology, and the necessity of freedom, tolerance of diversity and the search for transcendence for reestablishing individual dignity. His voice was fundamental for the fate of Poland, and influential in Europe as a whole. In addition to his sustained anti-dogmatic philosophical inquiries, he writes essays that are readable, provocative, and sometimes ironic and humorous. With charm, resourcefulness and gentle self-mockery, he raises questions about the sometimes mindless modernity of contemporary Europe and North America. He is a true humanist: philosopher, intellectual historian and cultural critic. Throughout his creative life he has asked big questions with the kind of intellectual honesty and depth that we have sought to honor with the John W. Kluge Prize."
When he was 10 years old, Kolakowski's family was deported by the Germans to central Poland. He did not attend school, but read books with occasional private lessons and took his final exams as an external student in the underground school system. He eventually studied philosophy in Lodz and earned his doctorate from Warsaw University in 1953, later becoming a professor and chairman of its section on the history of philosophy (1959-68). An orthodox Marxist at first, he was sent by the party in 1950 to Moscow on a course for promising communist intellectuals. It was there that he initially became aware of "the enormity of material and spiritual desolation caused by the Stalinist system."
The death of Stalin in 1953 stirred ferment in Poland with calls for democratization and conflict in the party ranks. In June 1956 worker riots in Poznan resulted in many deaths, and in October of that year Golulka was chosen as party leader in defiance of Moscow. Kolakowski had by then become one of Poland's leading revisionist Marxists. His publication of "What Is Socialism?" -- a short, incisive critique of Stalinism -- was banned in Poland, but circulated privately and was translated into English the next year. Disillusioned with the stagnation of communism, he became increasingly outspoken. He was expelled from the party in 1966, dismissed from his professorship two years later, and went into exile. But his works, appearing in underground editions, continued to shape the opinions of the Polish intellectual opposition. His essay "Theses on Hope and Hopelessness," in the Paris Polish-language journal Kultura (1971) proposed an evolutionary strategy designed to weaken the system. His concept inspired the activities of the Committee for the Defense of Workers and of the "Flying University," of which Kolakowski was a foreign member.
The relationships between freedom and belief, examined in many different contexts, have been lifelong themes of his scholarly work, and are displayed fully in a wide range of essays written in a non-technical language and accessible to a wide range of readers. In his, "The Death of Utopia Reconsidered" (1983), he explains his view of philosophy:
The cultural role of philosophy is not to deliver the truth but to build the spirit of truth, and this means never to let the inquisitive energy of mind go to sleep, never to stop questioning what appears to be obvious and definitive, always to defy the seemingly intact resources of common sense, always to suspect that there might be "another side" in what we take for granted, and never to allow us to forget that there are questions that lie beyond the legitimate horizon of science and are nonetheless crucially important to the survival of humanity as we know it.
After leaving Poland, Kolakowski became a visiting professor in the department of philosophy at McGill University (1968-69), the University of California, Berkeley (1969-70), and a senior research fellow at All Souls College, Oxford (1970). Based in Oxford since then, he spent part of 1974 at Yale, and from 1981 to 1994 was a professor part-time in the Committee on Social Thought and the department of philosophy at the University of Chicago. He has been a fellow of scholarly societies in many countries and has received numerous academic honors and awards.
What Kolakowski exemplifies and defends is the treatment of every individual as a rational and freely acting subject, aware that there is a spiritual side of life, able to have faith, yet eschewing absolute certainty of either an empirical or transcendental sort. It is the essence of a vibrant human culture to honor the universality of human rights while welcoming conflict of values, and repeated self- questioning, with what he calls "an inconsistent scepticism:"
I do not believe that human culture can ever reach a perfect synthesis of its diversified and incompatible components. Its very richness is supported by this very incompatibility of its ingredients. And it is the conflict of values, rather than their harmony, that keeps our culture alive.
The Kluge Prize was created to recognize not only the accomplishments but "the trajectory" of a scholarly lifetime. For more than a half century, Professor Kolakowski's scholarship has analyzed and affirmed both the underlying values and the desirable diversity of the European heritage. He has been a "Theoretician of European culture" as the heading proclaimed over the bibliography of his previously banned works that was published in Poland as it was passing from communism to freedom in 1990.
Beginning in 1958 with The Individual and Infinity, a lengthy book on Spinoza, Kolakowski published a series of major studies on a wide range of European philosophers: The Philosophy of Existence, the Defeat of Existence (1965), Positivist Philosophy from Hume to the Vienna Circle (1966, reprinted 2003), Husserl and the Search for Certitude (1975), works on Bergson (1957 and 1984), and Metaphysical Horror in 1988. He was dealing sympathetically with the thought of, respectively, an unorthodox Dutch Jew, French existentialists, agnostic English and Austrian empiricists, a German phenomenologist, a French believer in intuition and "the life force," and those who seek divine answers for human concerns.
Kolakowski's early advocacy of Marxism placed him in initial opposition to traditional Polish Catholicism. But it was more in the spirit of Erasmus' Praise of Folly, than of Marxist atheism that he wrote his most famous early essay, "The Jester and the Priest," expressing his preference for the former. He developed a deep interest in the religious dimension of human experience in general and in the Christian base of European civilization in particular.
In 1965 he published in Polish a monumental study that he had been working on since 1958: Religious Consciousness and the Church: Studies in 17th Century Non-denominational Christianity. (It has been translated into French, but not yet -- like many of his other major writings -- into English.) In this work, he brought to life a vast array of little-known thinkers from all over Europe who embraced Christian ideas, but radically rejected affiliation with any existing church. In opposition to the Church's "law," they all favored a religion of direct "grace." The research for this book led him deeper into the mystical mode of knowing and confirmed his distaste for institutionalized "truth" -- taken then to mean statist Marxism more than dogmatic Catholicism. His many writings on religion suggest the validity of the continuing quest for transcendent answers along with the near certainty that absolute answers are unobtainable in philosophy and dangerous in politics. His 1973 lecture, "The Revenge of the Sacred on Secular Culture," contends that the sacred is essential for culture as an ordering structure.
He deals with deep questions in a non-didactic and often ironic and gently self-mocking way in the treatises "If there is no God: on God, the Devil, Sin and other Worries in the So-called Philosophy of Religion" (1988). In his, God Owes Us Nothing (1985), he reflects on what he calls "Pascal's sad religion" of belief in a "hidden God" not reachable by reason. The conversion to Christianity of the great 17th century scientist plunged Pascal, like the modern man he prefigures, into what Kolakowski describes as "a never-ending state of suspense and doubt on the one matter that was really important."
Out of his sustained and disciplined study of philosophy, Kolakowski crafted his best known and most influential work: his three-volume Main Currents of Marxism: Its Rise, Growth and Dissolution (1976-78). Written in exile from Poland, it was, and remains, the most lucid and comprehensive history of the origins, structure and posthumous development of the system of thought that had the greatest impact on the 20th century. It was a prophetic work, written at a time when Marxism still provided the ideological glue for a Soviet system that was thought to have an indefinite life expectancy. He described with his customary objectivity the main ideas and diverse currents of Marxist thinking, but at the same time characterized Marxism as "the greatest fantasy of our century... [which] began in a Promethean humanism and culminated in the monstrous tyranny of Stalin."
His ideas informed the anti-totalitarian youth movement inside Poland, and he became an adviser and active supporter in exile of the Solidarity movement that challenged and began unraveling in a non-violent way the Soviet system in Eastern Europe. As one of the leaders of Solidarity put it:
This skeptical student of enlightenment thought, this scholar of the highest intellectual rigor, this opponent of all illusions, played the most romantic and Promethean of roles. He was the awakener of human hopes.
In exile he has written increasingly about the problems of Western culture. His Modernity on Endless Trial (1990) and Freedom, Fame, Lying and Betrayal: Essays on the Everyday (1990) are rich in substance, yet humane and often humorous in tone.
Some of Kolakowski's recent writings have been seen as a powerful alternative to the triumph of post-modernism and its deconstruction of the idea of truth. One reviewer wrote:
His defense of the human instinct for the transcendent -- which is, again, the defense of a philosopher writing from "within" the tradition of modern, critical western thought -- has been an important challenge to the stifling secularism that is so frequently encountered in the contemporary academy...[which] ignores the experience of the overwhelming majority of humankind.
The process that led to the selection of Leszek Kolakowski for the Kluge Prize began more than two years ago with a solicitation of nominations from more than 2,000 individuals world-wide: presidents or directors of universities, colleges, and institutions of advanced research and a wide variety of eminent scholars who were in a position to assess outstanding work in the humanities and social sciences. These nominations and others were reviewed by a number of other scholars; curatorial specialists in the Library of Congress provided bibliographies and materials by and about nominees; and, in September 2002, the Library's Council of Scholars conducted its review. Outside reviewers versed in particular fields, disciplines, cultures and languages were consulted and wrote evaluations throughout the process.
The final stage in the process was the convening in September 2003 of a special outside panel to review the selected group of 14 candidates for the prize. Five distinguished scholars experienced in a variety of high-quality scholarly selection procedures made up the final review panel:
- David Alexander, president emeritus of Pomona College in California, vice president of the Phi Beta Kappa Fellows, and former American Secretary to the Rhodes Trust, whose doctorate from Oxford was in religion and philosophy;
- Timothy Breen, professor of American history at Northwestern University, who after a doctorate at Yale has held appointments at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, and at the National Humanities Center in Durham, North Carolina;
- Bruce Cole, the current chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), who had been a distinguished professor of fine arts and of comparative literature at the Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana; his doctorate is from Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania;
- Gertrude Himmelfarb, professor emerita of history at the Graduate School of the City University of New York, is a noted scholar of intellectual and cultural history in the 17th and 18th centuries and a fellow of the British Academy and the Royal Historical Society;
- Amartya Sen, currently Master of Trinity College, Cambridge University in Cambridge, England, will become University Professor of economics and philosophy at Harvard in 2004, and is a Nobel Prize laureate in economics, Dr. Sen was educated at Presidency College in Calcutta, India, and at Cambridge.
The discussion and recommendations of members of this panel were a key factor in advising Dr. Billington concerning his final selection. Dr. Billington is the 13th Librarian of Congress and was formerly Professor of History at Princeton University, Chairman of the Board that governs the Fulbright Program and Director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Dr. Prosser Gifford, director of Scholarly Programs at the Library of Congress, supervised the selection process for the Kluge Prize. He holds graduate degrees from three different universities in three different subject areas of the human sciences and was formerly Dean of Faculty at Amherst College and Deputy Director of the Wilson Center.
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