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NLS Factsheets

Digital Audiobook Players

2009

Introduction

In 2009 the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS), Library of Congress, will begin to distribute digital talking books (DBs) and digital talking‑book players that will replace the analog audiocassette books and audiocassette players used today. While NLS moves forward with its digital talking‑book program, many forms of audiobooks in a variety of digital formats are also emerging. To accommodate these books, an assortment of players has become available.

This factsheet addresses the following:

  1. Audiobook players designed for use by blind or visually impaired individuals
  2. Selected commercial off‑the‑shelf audiobook players with features that make them usable by blind or visually impaired individuals
  3. Software programs that may be installed on a standard computer to enable users to play audiobooks without an additional device

This factsheet provides basic information about each product. The capabilities and supported formats of players change frequently. Therefore, features such as search functions, note-taking capability, and variable playback speeds should be verified at the time of purchase. A section titled “Contact Information for Sources of Audiobook Players” may be used to contact vendors for additional information about their products. (Please note that supported versions of the NISO Z39.86 and DAISY audiobook format vary among products, and books produced using later versions of these formats will not play on all products.)

In 2002 a NISO digital talking-book standard was approved and adopted as American National Standard ANSI/NISO Z39.86 (2002), “Specifications for the Digital Talking Book.” Digital talking books and digital talking‑book players under development by NLS will be compliant with the standard.

Audiobook formats covered in this factsheet include NLS [ANSI/NISO Z39.86 (2002)], Audible, Daisy 2.02 and Daisy 3.0 [ANSI/NISO Z39.86 (2005)], MP3, text, and Windows Media Audio (WMA). The medium for each can be CD, CompactFlash,  Secure Digital memory card, or a computer hard drive. A brief description of the formats and the media is provided in the glossary.

Disclaimer

Items listed in this factsheet are not part of the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped program. Their inclusion does not imply endorsement and many are not compatible with the digital talking book under development by NLS. Prices are subject to frequent change and should be verified with suppliers before ordering. Disclaimer for external links

Contents

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Glossary

ANSI/NISO Z39.86 (2002)
A digital talking‑book standard created under the umbrella of the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and approved as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It is entitled “Specifications for the Digital Talking Book.”

Audible
Proprietary compressed audio file format tailored for human voices. Developed by Audible.com.

CD
Compact disc

CompactFlash memory card
A small card that uses flash memory to store data. The card is used by such devices as digital cameras, music players, and some audiobook players.

DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System)
A set of standards and software developed by the international DAISY Consortium for recording digital talking books designed specifically for people who are unable to read regular print.

Earbuds
Small listening devices that fit in the ear canal. Earbuds may have one earpiece or two for stereo sound reproduction.

Earphones
Listening devices, usually consisting of two small speakers connected by wires, often worn over or inserted into the ears.

Flash memory
A type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased and rewritten.

Keypad
A small keyboard, usually with no more than three or four keys in each row.

Macintosh
Computer created by Apple Computer, Inc.

MP3
MPEG‑1 Audio Layer‑3. A compression scheme used to encode audio files.

Secure Digital (SD) memory card
A small card that uses flash memory to store data. The card is used by devices such as digital cameras, music players, and some audiobook players.

WMA (Windows Media Audio)
Multimedia file or streaming audio format created by Microsoft Corporation and used to download and play files.

Windows
A computer operating system created by Microsoft Corporation.

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Audiobook Players Designed for Use by Blind and Visually Impaired Individuals

Name BookCourier
Producer Springer Design, Inc.
Price $379
Format Audible, DAISY, MP3, and text formats
Media CompactFlash memory card (included)
Major features headphones required, allows unlimited bookmarks, built-in speech synthesizer
Operation operates on two AA batteries
Size 2.75" x 4.87" x 1"
Weight 6 oz.
Additional features automatic shut-off sleep timer, automatic bookmark at the end of each reading session, built-in microphone, built-in talking user guide
Distributor (s) Springer Technologies for the Visually Impaired, catalog no. 757836
   
Name Book Port
Producer American Printing House for the Blind
Price $395
Format Audible, DAISY, MP3, and text
Media CompactFlash memory card (included)
Major features headphones required, allows unlimited bookmarks, built-in speech synthesizer
Operation operates on two AA batteries
Size 2.75" x 4.87" x 1"
Weight 7 oz.
Additional features

automatic shut‑off sleep timer, automatic bookmark at the end of each reading session, built‑in microphone, built‑in talking user guide, CD with software and 1,700 digital books to transfer from a computer, audiocassette instructions, note‑taking capability, level 1–5 navigation

Distributor (s)

American Printing House for the Blind, catalog no. 1‑07440‑00

   
Name Braille+ Mobile Manager
Producer American Printing House for the Blind
Price $1,395
Format NLS, Audible, DAISY, MP3, and text
Media mini SD memory card and internal hard drive
Major features braille keyboard, allows unlimited bookmarks, built-in speech synthesizer, internal speaker
Operation operates on a built-in rechargeable battery or AC adaptor (included)
Size 3.35" x 5.09" x .97"
Weight 7.4 oz.
Additional features automatic bookmark at the end of each reading session, built‑in microphone, 30 gigabyte hard drive, built‑in talking user guide, automatic shut‑off sleep timer, wireless capability, word processor
Distributor (s) American Printing House for the Blind, catalog no. 1-07450-00
   
Name Icon
Producer Levelstar, Inc.
Price $1,395
Format NLS, Audible, DAISY, MP3, and text
Media mini SD and internal hard drive
Major features allows unlimited bookmarks, built-in speech synthesizer, internal speaker
Operation operates on a built-in rechargeable battery or AC adaptor (included)
Size 3.35" x 5.09" x .97"
Weight 7.4 ounces
Additional features

automatic shut‑off sleep timer, automatic bookmark at the end of each reading session, built‑in microphone, 30 gigabyte hard drive, built‑in talking user guide, wireless capability

Distributor (s) Levelstar, Inc.
   
Name Milestone 311 Voice Recorder/MP3 Player
Producer Independent Living Aids, Inc.
Price $369
Format DAISY and MP3
Media SD memory card
Major features earbuds, internal memory, internal speaker
Operation operates on a built-in rechargeable battery or AC adaptor (included)
Size 3.35" x 2.13" x 0.55"
Weight 1.7 oz.
Additional features built-in microphone, note-taking capability
Distributor (s) Independent Living Aids, item number 757828
   
Name Plextalk PTN1 DAISY Player
Producer Plextor LLC
Price $350
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media CD
Major features allows bookmarks, built-in speaker
Operation operates on rechargeable battery or AC adaptor (included)
Size 8.66" x 6.77" x 2.2"
Weight 2.65 lbs.
Additional features automatic shut‑off sleep timer; PTN1 Pro has a keypad
Distributor (s) EnableMart, Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic
   
Name Plextalk PTR2 DAISY Player and Recorder
Producer Plextor LLC
Price $895
Format DAISY and standard audio
Media CompactFlash memory card (included)
Major features allows multiple bookmarks, built‑in speaker
Operation operates on rechargeable battery or AC adaptor (included)
Size 1.6" x 3" x .8"
Weight 4.3 oz.
Additional features

automatic shut‑off sleep timer, built‑in microphone, recording tools to record and edit DAISY books

Distributor (s) EnableMart, Innovative Rehabilitation Technology, Inc., Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic , and Technologies for the Visually Impaired
   
Name Telex ezDAISY CD Player
Producer Telex Communications, Inc.
Price $349
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media CD
Major features headphones required, LCD screen to display disc details
Operation operates on four AA batteries or AC adaptor (included)
Size 5.25" x 6" x 1.59"
Weight 0.65 lbs
Distributor (s) Independent Living Aids, Inc.; Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic ; and Telex catalog no. 301329
   
Name Telex Professor
Producer Telex Communications, Inc.
Price $249 - $299
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media CD and 4-track audiocassette
Major features allows multiple bookmarks (from the CD), built-in speaker
Operation operates on 6-volt DC rechargeable battery pack or AC adaptor (included)
Size 11" x 6.75" x 10"
Weight 6.2 lbs.
Additional features AM/FM radio with audible station notification and ability to preset stations
Distributor (s) Independent Living Aids, Inc.;Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic ; and Telex catalog no. 3016480000
   
Name Telex Scholar Digital Talking Book Player
Producer Telex Communications, Inc.
Price $249
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media CD
Major features headphones required, allows bookmarks, LCD screen to display disc details
Operation operates on four AA batteries or AC adaptor (included)
Size 5.25" x 6" x 1.59"
Weight 1.65 lbs
Additional features retains its location in a commercially available CD audiobook when stopped
Distributor (s) Independent Living Aids, Inc.; Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic ; and Telex catalog 301267-xxx
   
Name Victor Reader ClassicX
Producer HumanWare
Price $375
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media CD
Major features built-in speaker
Operation operates on rechargeable, factory-installed batteries or AC adaptor
Size 9.3" x 8.2" x 2.1"
Weight 2.42 lbs.
Distributor (s) HumanWare
   
Name Victor Reader ClassicX+
Producer HumanWare
Price $375
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media CD
Major features allows multiple bookmarks, built-in speaker
Operation operates on rechargeable, factory-installed batteries or AC adaptor (included)
Size 9.3" x 8.2" x 2.1"
Weight 2.64 lbs.
Additional features allows skipping of elements such as page numbers and footnotes
Distributor (s) Beyond Sight, Inc.; HumanWare; and Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic
   
Name Victor Reader Stream
Producer HumanWare
Format NLS, Audible, DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media SD memory card
Major features allows bookmarks, built-in microphone, built-in speech synthesizer
Operation operates on built-in rechargeable battery
Weight 6 oz.
Additional features variable speed playback, built-in user guide, audio tone control
Distributor (s) EnableMart; HumanWare; and Independent Living Aids, Inc.
   
Name Victor Reader Vibe
Producer HumanWare
Price $219
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media CD
Major features earbuds, allows bookmarks
Operation operates on two AA rechargeable, factory-installed batteries
Size 5.5" x 5.5" x 1"
Weight 0.65 lbs.
Distributor (s) Beyond Sight, Inc.; HumanWare; Independent Living Aids, Inc; and Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic
   
Name Victor Reader Wave
Producer HumanWare
Price $249
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Media CD
Major features earphones required, allows multiple bookmarks
Operation operates on two AA rechargeable factory installed batteries
Size 5.82" x 5.43" x 1.14"
Weight 0.65 lbs.
Distributor (s) Beyond Sight, Inc.; HumanWare; Independent Living Aids, Inc; and Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic
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Selected Commercial Off-the-Shelf Audiobook Players

Name Iofy Player (formerly Audiofy Player)
Producer Audiofy Digital Audiobooks
Price $49.95
Format Audiofy audiobooks
Media SD memory card (included)
Major features headphone required
Operation operates on two AAA batteries
Size 3.9" x 2.5" x 0.5"
Weight 2.8oz.
Distributor (s) Audiofy Corporation
 
Name MuVo Mix
Producer Creative Labs
Price $70
Format Audible, MP3, and WMA
Media built-in flash memory; requires a computer to load content
Major features earbuds
Operation operates on one AAA battery (included)
Size 2.8" x 1.3" x 0.6"
Weight 1.3oz.
Additional features audible feedback in the rewind and fast-forward modes
Distributor (s) Creative Labs
 
Name Playaway
Producer Findaway
Price $30–$55
Format Preloaded, self-contained audiobook
Major features earbuds, allows bookmarks
Operation operates on one AAA battery (included)
Size 2" x 3" x .5"
Weight 2 oz.
Distributor (s) Findaway
 
Name Soul Player
Producer Brilliance Audio, Inc.
Price $149.99
Format MP3, standard audio, and WMA
Media CD
Major features forward and reverse by book, chapter, or page
Operation operates on two AA batteries, with built-in battery charger
Size 6" x 5" x 1"
Weight 11 oz.
Additional features auto-resume function
Distributor (s) Brilliance Audio
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Selected Software Programs for Playing Audiobooks

   
Name AMIS
Producer AMIS Project
Price Free (download)
Format DAISY and MP3
Major features allows bookmarks
Distributor (s) AMIS
   
Name Book Wizard Reader
Producer American Printing House for the Blind
Price $49 CD, $39 download
Format DAISY and MP3
Major features allows bookmarks
Distributor (s) APH
   
Name EaseReader
Producer Dolphin Audio Publishing
Price $55-$75
Format DAISY and text
Major features allows unlimited bookmarks, includes speech synthesizer and audio user guide
Distributor (s) Dolphin
   
Name eClipseReader
Producer Innovative Rehabilitation Technology, Inc.
Price $59.99-$84.88
Format DAISY, MP3 and text
Major features allows unlimited bookmarks, speech synthesizer
Distributor (s) Innovative Rehabilitation Technology, Inc. and Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic
   
Name eReader
Producer CAST
Price $85-$229
Format DAISY and text
Major features available in both Windows and Macintosh versions, speech synthesizer
Distributor (s) CAST
   
Name FSReader
Producer Freedom Scientific
Price $79.95
Format DAISY, MP3, and standard audio
Major features allows unlimited bookmarks
Additional features auto-resume function allows CD to resume playing at the last stop
Distributor (s) Freedom Scientific
   
Name gh Player 2.0
Producer gh, LLC
Price $149–$299.99
Format DAISY and text
Major features allows bookmarks, speech synthesizer
Distributor (s) Enable Mart and MaxiAids
   
Name Katieplayer
Producer Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic
Price $18 (basic)
Format DAISY
Major features operates on a Macintosh computer (not Windows)
Additional features automatic shut-off sleep timer
Distributor (s) Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic
   
Name Kurzweil 1000
Producer Kurzweil Educational Systems
Price $995
Format text-based DAISY
Major features allows bookmarks, speech synthesizer
Additional features scans paper documents then opens, reads, and stores them in DAISY format
Distributor (s) HumanWare and Kurzweil
   
Name Victor Reader Soft
Producer HumanWare
Price $79-$150
Format DAISY
Major features allows bookmarks; some versions include a speech synthesizer
Distributor (s) Beyond Sight, HumanWare, and Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic

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Contact Information for Sources of Audiobook Players

American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
1839 Frankfort Avenue
Louisville, KY 40206-0085
(502) 895-2405
800-223-1834
(502) 899-2274 fax
info@aph.org
www.aph.org

AMIS (Adaptive Multimedia Information System)
Help: http://www.daisy.org/forums/forum/5, marisa@dinf.ne.jp
http://daisy.org/projects/amis/

Audiofy Corporation, see Iofy Corporation

Beyond Sight, Inc.
5650 South Windermere Street
Littleton, CO 80120
(303) 795-6455
(303) 795-6425 fax
support@beyondsight.com
www.beyondsight.com

Brilliance Audio, Inc.
1704 Eaton Drive
Grand Haven, MI 49417
(616) 846-5256
800-854-7859
(616) 846-0630 fax
consumerhelp@brillianceaudio.com
www.brillianceaudio.com

CAST (formerly Center For Applied Special Technology)
40 Harvard Mills Square, Suite 3
Wakefield, MA 01880-3233
(781) 245-2212
(781) 245-9320 TT
(781) 245-5212 fax
cast@cast.org
www.cast.org

Creative Labs
1901 McCarthy Boulevard
Milpitas, CA 95035
(408) 428-6600
800-998-1000
(405) 624-6780 fax
http://us.creative.com/

Dolphin Computer Access, Inc.
231 Clarksville Road, Suite 3
Princeton Junction, NJ 08550
(609) 803-2171
866‑797‑5921
(609) 799-0475
info@dolphinusa.com
www.yourdolphin.com

EnableMart Sales Office
c/o MRN, Inc.
5353 South 960 East, Suite 200
Salt Lake City, UT 84117
(360) 695‑4155
888‑640‑1999
888-254-1712 fax
sales@enablemart.com
http://www.enablemart.com/

Findaway
(440) 893-0808
877-893-0808
(440) 893-0809 fax
http://www.playawaydigital.com/

Freedom Scientific
11800 31st Court North
St. Petersburg, FL 33716
(727) 803-8000
800-444-4443 or 877-775-9474
(727) 803-8001 fax
www.freedomscientific.com

gh, LLC
1305 Cumberland Avenue
West Lafayette, IN 47906
(765) 775-3776
866-693-3687 (866- MY-3-DOTS)
(765) 775-2501 fax
sales@gh-accessibility.com
www.ghbraille.com

HumanWare
175 Mason Circle
Concord, CA 94520
(925) 680-7100
800-722-3393
(925) 681-4630 fax
us.info@humanware.com
www.humanware.com/

Independent Living Aids, Inc.
P. O. Box 9022
Hicksville, NY 11802-9022
(516) 937-1848
800-537-2118
(516) 937-3906 fax
service@independentliving.com
www.independentliving.com

Innovative Rehabilitation Technology, Inc. (IRTI)
13465 Colfax Highway
Grass Valley, CA 95945
(530) 274-2090
800-322-4784
(530) 274-2093 fax
info@irti.net
www.irti.net

Iofy Corporation
One Crescent Drive, Suite 304
Navy Yard Corporate Center
Philadelphia, PA 19112-1015
(215) 848-8000
866-472-8346
(215) 790-6200 fax
support@audiofy.com
www.audiofy.com

Kurzweil Educational Systems, Inc.
100 Crosby Drive
Bedford, MA 01730-1402
(781) 276-0600
800-894-5374
(781) 276-0650 fax
info@kurzweiledu.com (general inquiries)
sales@kurzweiledu.com (sales)
customerservice@kurzweiltech.com (customer service)
www.kurzweiledu.com

Levelstar, Inc.
1500 Cherry Street, Suite D
Louisville, CO 80027
(303) 926-4334
800-315-2305
(303) 926-1787 fax
info@levelstar.com
www.levelstar.com

MaxiAids, Inc.
42 Executive Boulevard
Farmingdale, NY 11735
(631) 752‑0521
800‑522‑6294
800-281-3555 TT
(631) 752‑0689 fax
sales@maxiaids.com
http://www.maxiaids.com/store/default.asp


Plextor LLC
830 Hillview, Suite 210
Milpitas, CA 95035
(408) 719-3000
(408) 719-3030 fax
sales@plextalk.com
www.plextor.com

Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic (RFB&D)
20 Roszel Road
Princeton, NJ 08540
866-732-3585
800-221-4792
custserv@rfbd.org (member services)
www.rfbd.org
Plextalk reseller to Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic members only

Soulmate Audiobooks, Inc., see Brilliance Audio, Inc.

Springer Design, Inc.
6350 Clark Avenue
Dublin, CA 94568
(925) 242‑0310
sales@bookcourier.com
www.bookcourier.com

Technologies for the Visually Impaired
9 Nolan Court
Hauppauge, NY 11788
(631) 724-4479 voice and fax
866-689-5672
contact@tvi-web.com
www.tvi-web.com/

Telex Communications, Inc.
Talking Book Players
8601 East Cornhusker Highway
Lincoln, NE 68507
(402) 467-5321 (service)
800-898-6723 (technical support)
800-553-5992 (service)
(402) 467-3279 (fax)
info@telex.com
www.telex.com

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Selected Bibliography

2006 AccessWorld guide to assistive technology products. New York: AFB Press, 2006. 229p. Large print. $24.95.

Andrews, David. Which DAISY digital talking-book player is right for you? Proceedings of the Center On Disabilities, Technology and Persons With Disabilities Conference, California State University at Northridge (CSUN), 2006. Northridge, CA: 2006. Also available online at www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2006/proceedings/2812.htm.

Andrews, David. Reviews and comparisons of DAISY digital talking‑book players. Center on Disabilities, Technology and Persons with Disabilities Conference, California State University at Northridge (CSUN), 2004. Los Angeles, CA: 2004. Also available online at http://www.nfbnet.org/reviews.html.

Bernstein, Neil. Flash-memory distribution of digital talking books. Washington: National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Library of Congress, 2005. 8p. Free. Booklet. Also available online at www.loc.gov/nls/technical/flashdistribution.html.

Chevelier, Gerry. Digital talking books: life after the CD. Proceedings of the Center On Disabilities, Technology and Persons With Disabilities Conference, California State University at Northridge (CSUN), 2006. Northridge, CA: 2006. Also available online at www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2006/proceedings/2757.htm.

Crabb, Nolan. Now you can take your reader everywhere! Dialogue, v. 42, winter 2003: 71–76.

Dresner, Ann. A pocketful of sound: a quick start and buyer's guide to accessible books and music players. Boston: National Braille Press. $14. Available in ACSII, braille, and portabook formats. Also available online at http://www.nbp.org/ic/nbp/POCKET.html.

Hodges, Brad. Consumer electronics: crisis at the big box store, part 3. Braille monitor, v. 48, June 2005: 396–407.

Kendrick, Deborah. Full stream ahead: a review of the Victor Reader Stream. AccessWorld, v. 9, Jan. 2008. Retrieved Apr. 16, 2008 www.afb.org/afbpress/pub.asp?DocID=aw090105.

Kendrick, Deborah. Marking the road to MP3 player accessibility: a review of the Milestone 311, product evaluation. AccessWorld, v. 7, Sept. 2006. Retrieved Aug. 28, 2006. www.afb.org/afbpress/pub.asp?DocID=aw070505.

Kendrick, Deborah. On the move with MuVo, product evaluation. AccessWorld, v. 6, Jan. 2005. Retrieved Aug. 16, 2005.http://www.afb.org/afbpress/Pub.asp?DocID=aw060108.

Kendrick, Deborah. Read all day with Playaway, product evaluation. AccessWorld, v. 7, July 2006. Retrieved Aug. 31, 2006. www.afb.org/afbpress/pub.asp?DocID=aw070409.

Kendrick, Deborah. Reading into the future: an overview of the National Library Service’s digital talking book test program. AccessWorld, v. 8, Nov. 2007. Retrieved Apr. 1, 2008. http://www.afb.org/afbpress/pub.asp?DocID=aw080604.

Leventhal, Jay. A library in your hand: a review of the Book Port and the BookCourier. AccessWorld, v. 5, July 2004. Retrieved Aug. 18, 2006. www.afb.org/afbpress/pub.asp?DocID=aw050407..

Leventhal, Jay, and Janina Sajka. Read me, read me not: a review of four DAISY books players. AccessWorld, v. 5, Jan. 2004. Retrieved Aug. 18, 2006. www.afb.org/afbpress/pub.asp?DocID=aw050104.

Leventhal, Jay, and Janina Sajka. A rosy future for DAISY books. AccessWorld, v. 5, Jan 2004. Retrieved Aug. 18, 2006. www.afb.org/afbpress/pub.asp?DocID=aw050103.

Library of Congress. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Current strategic business plan for the implementation of digital systems. Washington, DC. 2006. 57p. Available online at www.loc.gov/nls/businessplan/index.html.

Library of Congress. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Washington. NLS Flash. Monthly. Free. Available online at www.loc.gov/nls/newsletters/flash/index.html.

Library of Congress. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Reference Section. Facts: selected sources for electronic texts. Compiled by Carol Strauss and Judy Dixon. Washington, 2003. 8p. Free. Available online at www.loc.gov/nls/reference/factsheets/etexts.html; also available on audiocassette upon request from the Reference Section.

National Federation of the Blind. Technology resource list: digital and e-book resources. Retrieved May 3, 2007. Available online at http://www.nfb.org/nfb/Technology_Resource_List_1.asp?SnID=646604117.

NIMAS Development and Technical Assistance Center. Digital talking books. Retrieved Apr. 15, 2008. http://nimas.cast.org/about/resources/dtb.html.

Taylor, John M. Serving blind readers in a digital age. American libraries, v. 35, Dec. 2004: 49–51.

Worsfold, John. DAISY accessibility for the masses using EaseReader. Proceedings of the Center On Disabilities, Technology and Persons With Disabilities Conference, California State University at Northridge (CSUN), 2006. Northridge, CA: 2006. Also available online at http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2006/proceedings/2692.htm.

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Compiled by
Robert B. Jones Jr.
June 2008

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Posted on 2013-06-28