Bronislaw Geremek is the former Foreign Minister of Poland and a scholar of medieval European history especially of France and Poland. He was born in 1932 in Warsaw, Poland, and educated at the University of Warsaw and Sorbonne. Dr. Geremek was a member of the Polish United Workers Party (1950-68), advisor to the Interfactory Strike Committee at the Gdansk Shipyard (1980), and a founding member of Solidarity's Independent Self-Governing Trade Union (1980). Between 1989 and 1977, he was chair of the parliamentary caucus of Solidarity's Democratic Union for Freedom and has taught at the Polish Academy of Sciences, Sorbonne, and College de France. His publications, which have been published in many languages, include: Poland at the 14th Congress of Historical Sciences in San Francisco; Idea of a Civil Society; Poverty: A History; and Common Roots of Europe.