BIBFRAME

Bibliographic Framework Initiative (Library of Congress)

The Library of Congress > BIBFRAME > Model & Vocabulary > BIBFRAME Relationships Draft Specification — 25 April 2014

Status of this Document

  • Draft for public review (25 April 2014)
  • Please send general comments about this document to the listserv bibframe@loc.gov or via email to bfcomments@loc.gov.
  • To the extent possible under law, the Library of Congress has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work.

1. Introduction

A BIBFRAME Relationship is a relationship between a BIBFRAME Work or Instance and another BIBFRAME Work or Instance.
Thus there are four types of relationships:

  1. Work to Work
  2. Work to Instance
  3. Instance to Work
  4. Instance to Instance

A relationship is expressed as an RDF triple, i.e. subject/property/object. Example:

WorkA bf:precedes WorkB’ .

The subject and object of the RDF triple are referred to informally as the “subject resource” and the “object resource” respectively.
The following example shows a BIBFRAME Work to Work relationship. BIBFRAME Work Adventures of Tom Sawyer – Hebrew (work1, the subject Work),is a translation of Adventures of Tom Sawyer (work2, the object Work, not shown).

<bf:Work rdf:about="http://bibframe.examples.org/work1”>
    <bf:workTitle>
       <bf:Title>
          <bf:titleValue>Adventures of Tom Sawyer </bf:  titleValue>
          <bf:titleAttribute>Hebrew</bf: titleAttribute>
       </bf:Title>
    </bf:workTitle>
    <bf:creator>
       <bf:Authority>
          <bf:authorizedAccessPoint>Twain, Mark,  1835-1910</bf:authorizedAccessPoint>
       </bf:Authority>
    </bf:creator>
    <bf:isTranslationOf rdf:resource=”  http://bibframe.examples.org/work2”/>
</bf:Work>

Figure 1: Work to Work Relationship

2. Relationships that Connect Works and Instances

BIBFRAME Works and Instances are united through relationships expressed via properties bf:hasInstance and bf:instanceOf.

In the following Work to Instance relationship, the BIBFRAME Work has an Instance in the form of a printed paperback. This relationship is expressed by the property bf:hasInstance.

<bf:Work rdf:about="http://bibframe.examples.org/work2”>
    <bf:workTitle>
       <bf:Title>
          <bf:titleValue>Paradise lost</bf:titleValue>
       </bf:Title>
    </bf:workTitle>
    <bf:creator>
       <bf:Authority>
          <bf:authorizedAccessPoint> Milton, John, 1608-1674</bf:authorizedAccessPoint>
       </bf:Authority>
    </bf:creator>
    <bf:hasInstance rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.examples.org/instance1”/>
</bf:Work>

Figure2a: Work to Instance relationship: hasInstance.

The following Instance to Work relationship is the inverse of the previous relationship; the subject and object resources are reversed. The subject Instance is the paperback and the relationship expresses that it is an Instance of the above BIBFRAME Work.

<bf:Instance rdf:about="http://bibframe.examples.org/instance1">
    <bf:instanceTitle>
       <bf:Title>
          <bf:titleValue> Paradise lost </bf:titleValue>
       </bf:Title>
    </bf:instanceTitle>
    <bf:isbn>0192833197</bf:isbn>     
    <bf:instanceOf rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.examples.org/work2”/>
</bf:Instance> 

Figure 2b. Instance to Work relationship: instanceOf. 

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3. Other Resource Relationships

This section illustrates several other relationships that are specially defined in BIBFRAME. Section 4 includes a list of all specific relationships included in the BIBFRAME vocabulary as named properties.

3.1. Works, Expressions, Translation

Figures 3a-e illustrate relationships among three BIBFRAME Works, an original and two expressions; the expressions are translations. An Instance is shown for each Work .

<bf:Work rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work1”>
   <bf:workTitle>
       <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>Freres Zemganno</bf:titleValue>
 	     <bf:titleAttribute>french</bf:titleAttribute>
       </bf:Title>
   </bf:workTitle>
   <bf:creator>
      <bf:Authority>
         <bf:authorizedAccessPoint>Goncourt, Edmund de, 1822-1896</bf:authorizedAccessPoint>
      </bf:Authority>
   </bf:creator>
   <bf:hasInstance rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance1”/>
   <bf:hasExpression rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work2”/>
   <bf:hasExpression rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work3”/>
</bf:Work> 

Figure 3.1a: Original Work, has one Instance and relates to Two Expressions.

<bf:Instance rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance1”>
   <bf:instanceTitle>
       <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>Freres Zemganno</bf:titleValue>
       </bf:Title>
   </bf:instanceTitle>
   <bf:instanceOf rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work1”/>
</bf:Instance> 

Figure 3.1b: Original Work, has one Instance and relates to Two Expressions.

<bf:Work rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work2”>
   <bf:workTitle>
       <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>Freres Zemganno</bf:titleValue>
 	     <bf:titleAttribute>english</bf:titleAttribute>
       </bf:Title>
   </bf:workTitle>
   <bf:creator>
      <bf:Authority>
         <bf:authorizedAccessPoint>Goncourt, Edmund de, 1822-1896</bf:authorizedAccessPoint>
      </bf:Authority>
   </bf:creator>
   <bf:hasInstance rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance2”/>
   <bf:hasExpression rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work1”/>
   <bf:hasExpression rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work1”/>
</bf:Work> 

Figure 3.1c: An expression of the Original Work: English translation.

<bf:Instance rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance2”>
   <bf:instanceTitle>
       <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>Freres Zemganno</bf:titleValue>
       </bf:Title>
   </bf:instanceTitle>
   <bf:instanceOf rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work2”/>
</bf:Instance> 

Figure 3.1d: An Instance of that Expression.

<bf:Work rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work3”>
   <bf:workTitle>
       <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>Freres Zemganno</bf:titleValue>
 	     <bf:titleAttribute>italian</bf:titleAttribute>
       </bf:Title>
   </bf:workTitle>
   <bf:creator>
      <bf:Authority>
         <bf:authorizedAccessPoint>Goncourt, Edmund de, 1822-1896</bf:authorizedAccessPoint>
      </bf:Authority>
   </bf:creator>
   <bf:hasInstance rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance3”/>
      <bf:hasExpression rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work1”/>
         <bf:hasExpression rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work1”/>
</bf:Work> 

Figure 3.1e: Another Expression of the Original Work: Italian Translation.

<bf:Instance rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance3”>
   <bf:instanceTitle>
       <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>I Fratelli Zemganno</bf:titleValue>
       </bf:Title>
   </bf:instanceTitle>
   <bf:instanceOf rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work3”/>
</bf:Instance> 

Figure 3.1f: An Instance of the Second Expression.

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3.2. Equivalent Instances

Figures 3.2a-c illustrate relationships among a BIBFRAME Work and two Instances. The two Instances are equivalent in content but the original (1930) was re-titled in the 1975 reissue.

<bf:Work rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work4”>
   <bf:workTitle>
       <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>Venice</bf:titleValue>
       </bf:Title>
   </bf:workTitle>
   <bf:creator>
       <bf:Authority>
 	     <bf:authorizedAccessPoint>Roth, Celil, 1899-1970</bf:authorizedAccessPoint>
       </bf:Authority>
    <bf:hasInstance rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance4”/>
<bf:hasInstance rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance5”/> </bf:Work>

Figure 3.2a: Work, has two Instances.

<bf:Instance rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance4”>
   <bf:instanceTitle>
      <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>Venice</bf:titleValue>
      </bf:Title>
   </bf:instanceTitle>
   <bf:providerDate>1930</bf:providerDate>
   <bf:instanceOf rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work4”/>
<bf:hasEquivalent rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance5”/> </bf:Work>

Figure 3.2b: First Instance of the Work, equivalent to the second Instance.

<bf:Instance rdf:about=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance5”>
   <bf:instanceTitle>
       <bf:Title>
 	     <bf:titleValue>History of the Jews in Venice</bf:titleValue>
       </bf:Title>
   </bf:instanceTitle>
   <bf: providerDate>1975</bf:providerDate>
   <bf:instanceOf rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/work4”/>
   <bf:hasEquivalent rdf:resource=”http://bibframe.rda.examples.org/instance4”/>
</bf:Instance> 

Figure 3.2c: Second Instance of the Work, equivalent to the first Instance.

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4. External Relationships

The relationships in the above examples (and those summarized in the following section) are all expressed in terms of BIBFRAME properties, i.e. properties from the BIBFRAME namespace.  However BIBFRAME relationships are not limited to BIBFRAME properties. Any relationship where each of the subject resource and object resource is either a BIBFRAME Work or a BIBFRAME Instance is a BIBFRAME relationship, even if the relationship property is from a namespace different from BIBRAME, provided that the definition of that property is not constrained to prevent it from being used in this manner (i.e. domain and or range excludes BIBFRAME Works and Instances).

As a hypothetical example, assume there is an ontology for description of museum objects, with namespace http://www.museum.example.org/  (prefix “museum:”).

Suppose BIBFRAME WorkA describes a statue, BIBFRAME WorkB describes another casting of that statue, and the museum: ontology defines the relationship property museum:castingOf, whose domain and range both include bf:Work.

Then the following RDF triple is a BIBFRAME relationship:
            bf:WorkB        museum:castingOf        bf:WorkA      

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5. Relationships and Properties

5.1. Basic Relationships

The following table shows, for the basic relationship types, the BIBFRAME property representing that type, and its domain and range.

BIBFRAME Relationship Type Represented by Property Domain Range
Work to Work bf:relatedWork bf:Work bf:Work
Work to Instance bf:hasInstance bf:Work bf:Instance
Instance to Work bf:instanceOf bf:Instance bf:Work
Instance to Instance bf:relatedInstance bf:Instance bf:Instance
unspecified bf:relatedTo unspecified unspecified

The only Work to Instance relationship (yet defined) is bf:hasInstance, and the only Instance to work relationship (yet defined) is bf:instanceOf. 
Every BIBFRAME relationship property (the complete list is shown in the table below) is a subproperty of either bf:relatedWork (for Work to Work) or bf:relatedInstance (for Instance to Instance), with the exception of relationship properties where the subject and/or object may be either a Work or Instance.

All relationship properties (including bf:relatedWork and bf:relatedInstance) are subproperties of bf:relatedTo.

5.2.Table of Relationship Properties

The following table lists all of the relationship properties currently defined in the BIBFRAME vocabulary.

General Relationships
propertyName domain range Sub Property Of definition
relatedTo Work or Instance Work or Instance   Any relationship between a Work or Instance and another Work or Instance.
relatedWork Work Work relatedTo General work to work relationship.
relatedInstance Instance Instance relatedTo General instance to instance relationship.
Work to Instance
propertyName domain range Sub Property Of definition
hasInstance Work Instance relatedTo Work has a related Instance/manifestation.
Instance to Work
propertyName domain range Sub Property Of definition
instanceOf Instance Work relatedTo Work this resource instantiates or manifests.
Domain/Range Unspecified
propertyName domain range Sub Property Of definition
hasEquivalent Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Instance embodies the same expression of a work as the resource being described.
hasDescription Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Related resource that analyzes, comments on, critiques, evaluates, reviews, or otherwise describes the resource.
descriptionOf Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Related resource that is analyzed, commented upon, critiqued, evaluated, reviewed, or otherwise described by the resource.
hasPart Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Resource that is included either physically or logically contained in the described resource.
partOf Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Resource in which the described resource is physically or logically included.
accompanies Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Resource that adds to or is issued with the described resource.
accompaniedBy Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Resource that has an accompanying resource which adds to it.
precededBy Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Resource that precedes the resource being described (e.g., is earlier in time or before in narrative).
succeededBy Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Resource that succeeds the resource being described (e.g., later in time or after in a narrative).
hasDerivative Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Work has a modification for which it is the source.
derivativeOf Unspecified Unspecified relatedTo Work is a modification of a source work.
Work to Work
propertyName domain range Sub Property Of definition
absorbed Work Work precededBy Work that has been incorporated into another Work
absorbedInPart Work Work precededBy Work that has been partially incorporated into another work.
continues Work Work precededBy Work that is continued by the content of a later work under a new title.
continuesInPart Work Work precededBy Work that split into two or more separate works with new titles.
separatedFrom Work Work precededBy Work that spun off a part of its content to form a new work.
supersedes Work Work precededBy Earlier work whose content has been replaced by a later work, usually because the later work contains updated or new information.
supersedesInPart Work Work precededBy Earlier work whose content has been partially replaced by a later work, usually because the later work contains updated or new information.
unionOf Work Work precededBy One of two or more works which came together to form a new work.
absorbedBy Work Work succededBy Work that incorporates another work.
absorbedInPartBy Work Work succededBy Work that incorporates part of the content of another work.
continuedBy Work Work succededBy Work whose content continues an earlier work under a new title.
continuedInPartBy Work Work succededBy Work part of whose content separated from an earlier work to form a new work.
supersededBy Work Work succededBy Later Work used in place of an earlier work, usually because the later work contains updated or new information.
supersededInPartBy Work Work succededBy Later Work used in part in place of an earlier work, usually because the later work contains updated or new information.
mergedToForm Work Work succededBy One of two or more works that come together to form a new work.
splitInto Work Work succededBy One of two or more works resulting from the division of an earlier work into separate works.
subseries Work Work hasPart Work, which is part of another series, in which the part has been issued.
series Work Work partOf Work in which the part has been issued; the title of the larger work appears on the part.
subseriesOf Work Work partOf Work in which the part consistently appears; the title of the larger work appears on all issues or parts of the subseries.
hasExpression Work Work relatedTo Work has a related expression.
expressionOf Work Work relatedTo Expression has a related work.
originalVersion Work Work derivativeOf Instance is the original version of which this resource is a reproduction.
otherEdition Work Work derivativeOf Resource has other available editions, for example simultaneously published language editions or reprints.
translation Work Work derivativeOf Work that translates the text of the source entity into a language different from that of the original.
translationOf Work Work hasDerivative Work that has been translated, i.e., the text expressed in a language different from that of the original work.
supplement Work Work accompanied By Work that updates or otherwise complements the predominant work.
Index Work Work accompanied By Work has an accompanying index
findingAid Work Work accompanied By Relationship is to a finding aid or similar control materials for archival, visual, and manuscript resources.
supplementTo Work Work accompanies Work that is updated or otherwise complemented by the augmenting work.
dataSource Work Work relatedTo Work that is a data source to which the described resource is related. It may contain information about other files, printed sources, or collection procedures.
Instance to Instance
propertyName domain range Sub Property Of definition
issuedWith Instance Instance related Instance Instance that is issued on the same carrier as the manifestation being described.
reproduction Instance Instance hasEquivalent Instance that reproduces another Instance embodying the same work.
otherPhysicalFormat Instance Instance hasEquivalent Resource that is manifested in another physical carrier.

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